Several of the CopyrightX teaching fellows used the 1990s Lotus v. Borland copyright case in their classes last week. In an excellent Case Study, Professor Fisher and TF/Berkman Center intern Ben Sobel dissected the background and holdings in this complex case.
An interesting aspect of the case study was the use of documents that came to light during Elena Kagan’s Supreme Court nomination process. In 1995 now-Justice Kagan was Associate White House Counsel, and was involved in the administration’s debate of whether to support Lotus (which had prevailed before Massachusetts U.S. District Court Judge Robert Keeton), or Borland (which won before the First Circuit). Judge Keeton had held the Lotus 1-2-3 menu hierarchy copyrightable, and the First Circuit had reversed, holding it to be an uncopyrightable method of operation under 17 U.S.C. sec. 102(b).
Lotus appealed to the Supreme Court, which granted cert. The question the Solicitor General’s office faced in December 1995 was whether to support Borland or Lotus, and on what grounds.… Read the full article
I’m privileged to be a CopyrightX teaching fellow this year, and this week CopyrightX met the real world – in the form of an encounter with Sony Music and the DMCA. Professor William Fisher’s CopyrightX lecture 3.3, The Subject Matter of Copyright: Music, contains audio clips of Bob Dylan’s All Along the Watchtower played by Dylan, Hendrix and Stevie Ray Vaughn. The course is making the point, with musical illustrations, that U.S. copyright law allows cover versions, so long as the artist making the cover pays the required compulsory license, and, that the cover version can depart quite significantly from the “fundamental character” of the original.
Unsurprisingly, Youtube’s automated ContentID system, cannot distinguish fair use from illegal use. Presumably, a “put back” notice will resolve this little contretemps.
Techdirt’s Mike Masnick discusses the whole episode in more detail, here.
This is not the first time a Harvard law professor has been the subject of a DMCA takedown of an educational fair use. … Read the full article
It’s not often that a case involving a 29 second video of toddlers cycling around on a kitchen floor goes to a federal court of appeals, much less results in an important, precedent-setting copyright decision. But that is exactly what happened in Lenz v. Universal Music Corp.
The cases arises from an issue inherent in the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. The DMCA allows copyright owners to request the “takedown” of a post that uses infringing content.
But, what does the copyright owner have to do to determine, first, whether fair use applies? Does it need to do anything at all?
This question has finally been decided by the Ninth Circuit in a much-anticipated decision issued on September 14, 2015.
The case had inauspicious beginnings. In 2007 Stephanie Lenz posted to YouTube a 29 second video of her toddler son cycling around the kitchen, with Prince’s song “Let’s Go Crazy” playing in the background.… Read the full article
One of the hoariest chestnuts of copyright law is that a recipe is not copyrightable.
Seemingly unaware of this – or in outright defiance of the law – the plaintiffs in Lorenza v. South American Restaurants Corp. argued to the contrary. Specifically, the plaintiffs claimed copyright in a “Pechu Sandwich” recipe consisting of”fried chicken breast patty, lettuce, tomato, American cheese, and garlic mayonnaise on a bun.”
The complaint contained no allegation that the “recipe” for the sandwich was in a form of expression beyond that of a list of ingredients.
The district court dismissed the copyright claim, and the First Circuit made short work of affirming:
Contrary to [plaintiff’s] protests on appeal, the district court properly determined that a chicken sandwich is not eligible for copyright protection. This makes good sense; . . .. A recipe — or any instructions — listing the combination of chicken, lettuce, tomato, cheese, and mayonnaise on a bun to create a sandwich is quite plainly not a copyrightable work.
… Read the full article